Cognitive Behavioural Therapies

male counsellor and patient during cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive Behavioural Therapies

Behaviour therapy (BT) refers to a spectrum of methods in the field of psychotherapy. What these have in common, despite numerous differences in terms of theoretical assumptions and practical methods, is that they value the models of (classical and operant) conditioning as central to processes within the human psyche. Another characteristic of behavioural therapy methods is supporting patients to help themselves. The focus is on giving the patient, after gaining insight into the causes and history of their problems, methods which empower them to overcome their psychological complaints. Behaviour therapy has been expanded in recent decades to include cognitive concepts. Since then it has also been called Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and both variants have been subsumed under the acronym CBT.



Principle of behaviour therapy

Behavioural therapy methods are originally based on learning theory. The basic idea is that disorder-related behaviour has been learned and can also be unlearned, or that more appropriate ways of thinking and behaving can be learned. In the meantime, behavioural therapy has been further developed in many ways and differentiated into various methods.Therapeutic techniques of behavioural therapy that are particularly well known to the public are confrontations with triggering stimuli (e.g. exposure, systematic desensitisation) as well as the reinforcement of desired behaviour and the extinction of undesired behaviour. The basic idea of behavioural therapy is that the behaviour of the individual is learned and can be unlearned.
Background and Basic assumptions
Originally, behavioural therapy according to John B. Watson (1878-1958), in contrast to depth psychological methods, followed a “black box model”, which essentially states that inner processes remain inscrutable to outsiders and should therefore not be analysed. This stance was an attempt to move away from the intuitive approach of depth psychology, which, as Wolf Singer describes it, lived from the 1st person perspective (“I observe my feelings”) and relied largely on insinuations (Oedipus complex, etc.). Behavioural therapy seeks the 3rd person perspective (“We look at the situation together”) and is therefore more closely aligned with neurological-neurobiological models, which focus on a stimulus and the measurable response.
Behaviour therapy differs from psychoanalysis in the following assumptions: It is assumed that behaviours can be learned and also unlearned again. However, genetic differences are taken into account as causes of disorders, for example in the so-called vulnerability-stress models. Here, an inherited susceptibility to stress is taken into account as a prerequisite for a disorder. In its assumptions about etiological models of disorders, behavioural therapy is only committed to certain theories to a limited extent and can therefore integrate new empirical findings into its models and theories.

It follows that problematic behaviour may be seen as the result of learning processes and should be changed through the use of behavioural and learning principles. Crucial for this is a precise behavioural analysis to determine the instantaneous causes of a problematic behaviour. Treatment strategies are then individually adapted to the patient’s problems. In order to bring about change, it is not necessarily required to understand the exact origins of psychological problems, as it is not possible to travel into the past and analyse whether changing hypothetical drivers would adjust the evolution of a patient’s problems.
Since a variety of different behavioural therapy methods have developed, there is no one standard behavioural therapy procedure. However, behavioural therapy treatment usually begins with a behavioural and problem analysis in which the patient’s problems are examined in relation to their maintaining conditions and with regard to their consequences. An underlying concept here is the behavioural analysis according to Frederick Kanfer, the so-called SORKC model. In addition to the examination of stimulus-response relationships, feelings, thoughts and physical processes are usually also included. So are the influences of the patient’s extended environment, such as the behaviour of family members, work colleagues, friends and acquaintances. The level of plans and system rules is also taken into account. Another field of analysis is the therapist-client relationship, which is given more space nowadays than in the early days of behavioural therapy.

In the goal analysis, realistic therapy goals are determined and concretised together with the patient, from which the therapist selects the interventions to be used and applies them in consultation with and with the consent of the patient. Following these steps, a therapy contract is often agreed upon in which the patient and therapist decide on goals and tasks during therapy.
During a course of therapy, various behavioural therapy methods can be used that relate to behavioural and goal analysis. The overriding principle here is to help the patient to help himself. This means that the patient should learn in therapy how to cope with his own life (again) by himself. In addition, the therapist usually also pays attention to a complementary relationship design, as described by Klaus Grawe. Another important step that must be considered in addition to the use of intervention methods is the building of a therapeutic alliance or motivation for change. After the actual interventions have been used, an evaluation process is carried out to check the success of methods used. The described steps of analysis and intervention are not carried out strictly separately from each other within the therapeutic practice, but are mutually dependent and exist within a feedback process.
Find a suitable psychoanalytic therapist in London by clicking here.

Behaviour therapy (BT) refers to a spectrum of methods in the field of psychotherapy. What these have in common, despite numerous differences in terms of theoretical assumptions and practical methods, is that they value the models of (classical and operant) conditioning as central to processes within the human psyche. Another characteristic of behavioural therapy methods is supporting patients to help themselves. The focus is on giving the patient, after gaining insight into the causes and history of their problems, methods which empower them to overcome their psychological complaints. Behaviour therapy has been expanded in recent decades to include cognitive concepts. Since then it has also been called Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and both variants have been subsumed under the acronym CBT.
Principle of behaviour therapy
Behavioural therapy methods are originally based on learning theory. The basic idea is that disorder-related behaviour has been learned and can also be unlearned, or that more appropriate ways of thinking and behaving can be learned. In the meantime, behavioural therapy has been further developed in many ways and differentiated into various methods.Therapeutic techniques of behavioural therapy that are particularly well known to the public are confrontations with triggering stimuli (e.g. exposure, systematic desensitisation) as well as the reinforcement of desired behaviour and the extinction of undesired behaviour. The basic idea of behavioural therapy is that the behaviour of the individual is learned and can be unlearned.
Background and Basic assumptions
Originally, behavioural therapy according to John B. Watson (1878-1958), in contrast to depth psychological methods, followed a “black box model”, which essentially states that inner processes remain inscrutable to outsiders and should therefore not be analysed. This stance was an attempt to move away from the intuitive approach of depth psychology, which, as Wolf Singer describes it, lived from the 1st person perspective (“I observe my feelings”) and relied largely on insinuations (Oedipus complex, etc.). Behavioural therapy seeks the 3rd person perspective (“We look at the situation together”) and is therefore more closely aligned with neurological-neurobiological models, which focus on a stimulus and the measurable response.
Behaviour therapy differs from psychoanalysis in the following assumptions: It is assumed that behaviours can be learned and also unlearned again. However, genetic differences are taken into account as causes of disorders, for example in the so-called vulnerability-stress models. Here, an inherited susceptibility to stress is taken into account as a prerequisite for a disorder. In its assumptions about etiological models of disorders, behavioural therapy is only committed to certain theories to a limited extent and can therefore integrate new empirical findings into its models and theories.
It follows that problematic behaviour may be seen as the result of learning processes and should be changed through the use of behavioural and learning principles. Crucial for this is a precise behavioural analysis to determine the instantaneous causes of a problematic behaviour. Treatment strategies are then individually adapted to the patient’s problems. In order to bring about change, it is not necessarily required to understand the exact origins of psychological problems, as it is not possible to travel into the past and analyse whether changing hypothetical drivers would adjust the evolution of a patient’s problems.
Since a variety of different behavioural therapy methods have developed, there is no one standard behavioural therapy procedure. However, behavioural therapy treatment usually begins with a behavioural and problem analysis in which the patient’s problems are examined in relation to their maintaining conditions and with regard to their consequences. An underlying concept here is the behavioural analysis according to Frederick Kanfer, the so-called SORKC model. In addition to the examination of stimulus-response relationships, feelings, thoughts and physical processes are usually also included. So are the influences of the patient’s extended environment, such as the behaviour of family members, work colleagues, friends and acquaintances. The level of plans and system rules is also taken into account. Another field of analysis is the therapist-client relationship, which is given more space nowadays than in the early days of behavioural therapy.
In the goal analysis, realistic therapy goals are determined and concretised together with the patient, from which the therapist selects the interventions to be used and applies them in consultation with and with the consent of the patient. Following these steps, a therapy contract is often agreed upon in which the patient and therapist decide on goals and tasks during therapy.
During a course of therapy, various behavioural therapy methods can be used that relate to behavioural and goal analysis. The overriding principle here is to help the patient to help himself. This means that the patient should learn in therapy how to cope with his own life (again) by himself. In addition, the therapist usually also pays attention to a complementary relationship design, as described by Klaus Grawe. Another important step that must be considered in addition to the use of intervention methods is the building of a therapeutic alliance or motivation for change. After the actual interventions have been used, an evaluation process is carried out to check the success of methods used. The described steps of analysis and intervention are not carried out strictly separately from each other within the therapeutic practice, but are mutually dependent and exist within a feedback process.

Find a suitable cbt therapist in London by clicking here.